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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 96-100

Serum lipase amylase ratio in predicting the etiology of acute pancreatitis

1 Department of Surgery, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India
2 Manipur Health Services Department, Govt. of Manipur, Imphal, Manipur, India

Correspondence Address:
Laishram Jaleshwar Singh
Department of Surgery, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal West - 795 004, Manipur
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jms.jms_121_20

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Background: Acute pancreatitis remains a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholism and biliary tract stone disease are the main causes in up to 80% of cases. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on the correlation of clinical, biochemical, and radiological criteria. Serum lipase and amylase have been used to diagnose acute pancreatitis with values greater than three times the upper limit of normal being diagnostic. Objective: The aim is to study the value of serum lipase: amylase ratio in predicting the etiology of acute pancreatitis. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India during a 2-year period. The serum lipase/amylase ratio has been evaluated in 52 patients (31 acute alcoholic pancreatitis, 19 acute gallstone pancreatitis, 2 idiopathic). Results: Analysis of data showed that patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis had higher serum lipase levels (2722.5 ± 285.7, mean ± standard deviation) compared to acute gallstone pancreatitis (1565.21 ± 198.2). On the other hand, acute gallstone pancreatitis patients had higher serum amylase (862.3 ± 105.5) compared to acute alcoholic pancreatitis patients (683.03 ± 618.31). Determination of lipase: amylase ratio showed that out of 31 patients of acute alcoholic pancreatitis 22 patients (71%) had lipase: amylase ratio ≥3. Out of 19 patients of acute gallstone pancreatitis, 17 patients (89.5%) had lipase: amylase ratio <3, which was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Serum lipase: amylase ratio fixed at 3.0 can assist in differentiating acute biliary pancreatitis from acute alcoholic pancreatitis. The lipase: amylase ratio ≥3 is observed in alcoholic acute pancreatitis while biliary pancreatitis has ratio <3.

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